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Togo is a tropical , sub-Saharan nation, whose economy depends highly on agriculture, with a climate that provides good growing seasons.
While the official language is French, many other languages are spoken, particularly those of the Gbe family. The largest religious group consists of those with indigenous beliefs, and there are significant Christian and Muslim minorities.
Archaeological finds indicate that ancient tribes were able to produce pottery and process iron. The name Togo is translated from the Ewe language as "behind the river".
Not much is known of the period before arrival of the Portuguese in Most of them settled in coastal areas. The slave trade began in the 16th century, and for the next two hundred years the coastal region was a major trading centre for Europeans in search of slaves, earning Togo and the surrounding region the name "The Slave Coast ".
In , a paper was signed at Togoville with the King Mlapa III, whereby Germany claimed a protectorate over a stretch of territory along the coast and gradually extended its control inland.
Its borders were defined after the capture of hinterland by German forces and signing agreements with France and Britain.
In , this became the German colony of Togoland. The local population was forced to work, cultivate cotton, coffee and cocoa and pay high taxes.
The Germans introduced modern techniques of cultivation of cocoa , coffee and cotton and developed the infrastructure. On 7 December , the condominium collapsed and Togo was divided into British and French zones.
In , the country received the right to send three representatives to the French parliament. The residents of British Togoland voted to join the Gold Coast as part of the new independent nation of Ghana in French Togoland became an autonomous republic within the French Union in , while France retained the right to control the defense, foreign relations and finances.
The Togolese Republic was proclaimed on 27 April On 9 April , the Constitution of the Togolese Republic was adopted, according to which the supreme legislative body was the National Assembly of Togo.
In December , leaders of opposition parties were arrested because they were accused of the preparation of an anti-government conspiracy.
A decree was issued on the dissolution of the opposition parties. He also rejected efforts of French soldiers who were demobilized after the Algerian War and tried to get a position in the Togolese army.
The military handed over power to an interim government led by Nicolas Grunitzky. In May , Grunitzky was elected President of the Republic.
The new leadership pursued a policy of developing relations with France. His main aim was to dampen the divisions between north and south, promulgate a new constitution, and introduce a multiparty system.
He created the Rally of the Togolese People Party , banned activities of other political parties and introduced a one-party system in November He was reelected in and In , the privatization program launched and in other political parties were allowed.
In , the EU froze the partnership, describing Eyadema's re-election in , and , as a seizure of power. In April , in Brussels, talks were held between the European Union and Togo on the resumption of cooperation.
Some democratically elected African leaders such as Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal and Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria supported the move, thereby creating a rift within the African Union.
The opposition declared that the election results were fraudulent. The events of led to questions regarding the government's commitment to democracy that had been made in an attempt to normalize relations with the EU , which cut off aid in due to questions about Togo's human rights situation.
In addition, up to people were killed in the violence surrounding the presidential elections, according to the UN.
Around 40, Togolese fled to neighboring countries. In late , anti-government protests erupted in Togo, the biggest since those after the election.
An investigation has been opened for this case and all individuals around his death are being questioned.
It borders the Bight of Benin in the south; Ghana lies to the west; Benin to the east; and to the north, Togo is bound by Burkina Faso.
In the north, the land is characterized by a gently rolling savanna in contrast to the center of the country, which is characterized by hills.
The south of Togo is characterized by a savanna and woodland plateau which reaches to a coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes.
The highest mountain of the country is the Mont Agou at m above sea level. It runs from north to south. To the south, there are two seasons of rain the first between April and July and the second between September and November , even though the average rainfall is not very high.
The coast of Togo is characterized by marshes and mangroves. High human population growth is leading to rapid deforestation , endangering many species.
The most frequently observed animals are giraffes , cape buffalo , hyenas , and lions. Few elephants remain. Common birds are storks , cranes and marabou.
The President is elected by universal and direct suffrage for 5 years. He is also the commander of the armed forces and has the right to initiate legislation and dissolve parliament.
Executive power is exercised by the president and the government. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the president.
Togo's transition to democracy is stalled. Its democratic institutions remain nascent and fragile. Gravely ill, he was being transported by plane to a foreign country for care.
He died in transit while over Tunisia. Natchaba was out of the country, returning on an Air France plane from Paris. Within Togo, opposition to the takeover culminated in riots in which several hundred died.
There were uprisings in many cities and towns, mainly located in the southern part of the country. However, electoral fraud was suspected, due to a lack of European Union or other independent oversight.
In October , after several postponements, elections were held under proportional representation. This allowed the less populated north to seat as many MPs as the more populated south.
The president-backed party Rally of the Togolese People RPT won outright majority with the UFC coming second and the other parties claiming inconsequential representation.
Again vote rigging accusations were leveled at the RPT supported by the civil and military security apparatus.
Despite the presence of an EU observer mission, canceled ballots and illegal voting took place, the majority of which in RPT strongholds.
The election was declared fair by the international community and praised as a model with little intimidation and few violent acts for the first time since a multiparty system was reinstated.
However, on 5 September , after only 10 months in office, Mally resigned as prime minister of Togo. In the same month, the home of opposition leader Jean Pierre Fabre was raided by security forces, and thousands of protesters again rallied publicly against the government crackdown.
Togo is divided into five regions, which are subdivided in turn into 30 prefectures. Although Togo's foreign policy is nonaligned, it has strong historical and cultural ties with western Europe, especially France and Germany.
It re-established relations with Israel in Togo pursues an active foreign policy and participates in many international organizations.
It is particularly active in West African regional affairs and in the African Union. Relations between Togo and neighboring states are generally good.
Total military expenditures during the fiscal year of totalled 1. Togo was labeled "Not Free" by Freedom House from to , and again from to , and has been categorized as "Partly Free" from to and again from to the present.
It has very serious and longstanding human-rights problems. According to a U. State Department report based on conditions in , these include "security force use of excessive force, including torture , which resulted in deaths and injuries; official impunity; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrests and detention; lengthy pretrial detention; executive influence over the judiciary; infringement of citizens' privacy rights; restrictions on freedoms of press , assembly , and movement; official corruption; discrimination and violence against women; child abuse, including female genital mutilation FGM , and sexual exploitation of children; regional and ethnic discrimination; trafficking in persons, especially women and children; societal discrimination against persons with disabilities; official and societal discrimination against homosexual persons; societal discrimination against persons with HIV ; and forced labor, including by children.
Cotton is the most important cash crop. Major crops are cassava , jasmine rice , maize and millet. Other important sectors are brewery and the textile industry.
A permanent problem is the lack of electricity , because the country is able to produce only about a third of its consumption, the rest is covered by imports from Ghana and Nigeria.
Low market prices for Togo's major export commodities, however, coupled with the volatile political situation of the s and early s, had a negative effect on the economy.
Togo is one of the least developed countries ; the economic situation is still precarious. Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade center.
The government's decade-long efforts, supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund IMF , to carry out economic reforms, to encourage investment, and to create the balance between income and consumption has stalled.
Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout and , jeopardized the reform program, shrank the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity.
Togo imports machinery , equipment, petroleum products, and food. Main import partners are France The main exports are cocoa , coffee , re-export of goods, phosphates and cotton.
Major export partners are Burkina Faso In terms of structural reforms, Togo has made progress in the liberalization of the economy, namely in the fields of trade and port activities.
However, the privatization program of the cotton sector, telecommunications and water supply has stalled. The country currently has no debt due to financial assistance from the outside while Togo is likely among the most beneficiary countries under the Initiative help in Heavily Indebted Poor Countries.
Progress depends on increased openness in government financial operations to accommodate increased social service outlays and possible downsizing of the armed forces , on which the regime has depended to stay in place.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy, although it is struggling with a chronic shortage of funds for the purchase of irrigation equipment and fertilizers , which has significantly reduced agricultural output.
Agriculture generated The country is essentially self-sufficient in food production. Livestock production is dominated by cattle breeding.
Mining generated about Togo has the fourth largest phosphate deposits in the world. Their production is 2. Since the mids, however, there has been a decline in the mining industry and government will need to invest heavily to sustain it.
The mining industry is facing difficulties due to falling phosphate prices on world markets and increasing foreign competition. There are also reserves of limestone , marble and salt.
Industry provides only Large reserves of limestone allows Togo to produce cement. The November census gave Togo a population of 6,,, more than double the total counted in the last census.
That census, taken in , showed the nation had a population of 2,, With an estimated population of 7,, as of [update] , Togo is the th largest country by population.
The population of Togo shows a strong growth: from the year after independence to it quintupled. Sometimes the Ewes and Ouatchis are considered the same, but the French who studied both groups considered them different people.
Religion in Togo estimate . The report also noted that many Christians and Muslims continue to perform indigenous religious practices. Christianity began to spread from the middle of the 15th century, after the arrival of the Portuguese and Catholic missionaries.
Germans introduced Protestantism in the second half of the 19th century, when a hundred missionaries of the Bremen Missionary Society were sent to the coastal areas of Togo and Ghana.
Togo's Protestants were known as "Brema," a corruption of the word " Bremen. Togo is a multilingual country. According to Ethnologue, 39 distinct languages are spoken in the country, many of them by communities that number fewer than , members.
French is used in formal education, legislature, all forms of media, administration and commerce. Ewe is a language of wider communication in the south.
Tem functions to a limited extent as a trade language in some northern towns. Health expenditure in Togo was 5. As of [update] , the maternal mortality rate per , births for Togo is , compared with in and In Togo the number of midwives per 1, live births is 2 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in Education in Togo is compulsory for six years.
The education system has suffered from teacher shortages, lower educational quality in rural areas, and high repetition and dropout rates.
Togo's culture reflects the influences of its many ethnic groups, the largest and most influential of which are the Ewe , Mina , Tem, Tchamba and Kabre.
Despite the influences of Christianity and Islam, over half of the people of Togo follow native animistic practices and beliefs.
Ewe statuary is characterized by its famous statuettes which illustrate the worship of the ibeji. Sculptures and hunting trophies were used rather than the more ubiquitous African masks.
The wood-carvers of Kloto are famous for their "chains of marriage": two characters are connected by rings drawn from only one piece of wood.
The dyed fabric batiks of the artisanal center of Kloto represent stylized and colored scenes of ancient everyday life.
The loincloths used in the ceremonies of the weavers of Assahoun are famous. Works of the painter Sokey Edorh are inspired by the immense arid extents, swept by the dry wind, and where the soil keeps the prints of the men and the animals.
The plastics technician Paul Ahyi is internationally recognized today. The official Togolese drink is called sodabi , a liquor that is created from the distillation of palm wine.
On 12 August , Benjamin Boukpeti born to a Togolese father and a French mother won a bronze medal in the Men's K1 Kayak Slalom, the first medal ever won by a member of the Togolese team at the Olympics.
Football is the most recognized and national sport of Togo. Das Logo ersetzt nun während der Ausstrahlung des Programmfensters das Senderlogo, dieses ist aber in das jetzige integriert worden.
Seit 5. Juni ist das Toggo-Logo leicht verändert zu sehen. Das Logo ist nun dunkelorange und der Farbverlauf wurde entfernt.
Toggo soll nun vollständig von der Dachmarke Super RTL getrennt werden und zu einem sogenannten ,,Content Hub", also zu einer eigenständigen Marke ausgebaut werden.
AT 2 CH 5 AT 4 CH 9 CH 2 AT 3 CH 6 CH 14 CH 21 CH 22 CH 19 CH 18 CH 11 AT 14 AT 16 Namensräume Artikel Diskussion.
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